Leblanc J et al., Targeted HIV Screening in Eight Emergency Departments: The DICI-VIH Cluster-Randomized Two-Period Crossover Trial, Ann Emerg Med, 2018

Targeted HIV Screening in Eight Emergency Departments: The DICI-VIH Cluster-Randomized Two-Period Crossover Trial.

Leblanc J, Hejblum G, Costagliola D, Durand-Zaleski I, Lert F, de Truchis P, Verbeke G, Rousseau A, Piquet H, Simon F, Pateron D, Simon T, Crémieux AC; DICI-VIH (Dépistage Infirmier CIblé du VIH) Group.

Ann Emerg Med. 2018 Jul;72(1):41-53.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2017.09.011. Epub 2017 Oct 31. PMID: 29092761


Study objective: This study compares the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of nurse-driven targeted HIV screening alongside physician-directed diagnostic testing (intervention strategy) with diagnostic testing alone (control strategy) in 8 emergency departments.

Methods: In this cluster-randomized, 2-period, crossover trial, 18- to 64-year-old patients presenting for reasons other than potential exposure to HIV were included. The strategy applied first was randomly assigned. During both periods, diagnostic testing was prescribed by physicians following usual care. During the intervention periods, patients were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. According to their answers, the triage nurse suggested performing a rapid test to patients belonging to a high-risk group. The primary outcome was the proportion of new diagnoses among included patients, which further refers to effectiveness. A secondary outcome was the intervention’s incremental cost (health care system perspective) per additional diagnosis.

Results: During the intervention periods, 74,161 patients were included, 16,468 completed the questionnaire, 4,341 belonged to high-risk groups, and 2,818 were tested by nurses, yielding 13 new diagnoses. Combined with 9 diagnoses confirmed through 97 diagnostic tests, 22 new diagnoses were established. During the control periods, 74,166 patients were included, 92 were tested, and 6 received a new diagnosis. The proportion of new diagnoses among included patients was higher during the intervention than in the control periods (3.0 per 10,000 versus 0.8 per 10,000; difference 2.2 per 10,000, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.6; relative risk 3.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 9.8). The incremental cost was €1,324 per additional new diagnosis.

Conclusion: The combined strategy of targeted screening and diagnostic testing was effective.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127424.


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